THE RESTRUCTURING OF THE RBPF,AND RBDF BY CONSTITUTIONAL REFORMATION
THE APPLICATION OF NEW PENAL CODES AND CURRENT LAWS
Although we in the Kingdom Government Movement are firmly of the view that the causes of crime is multifaceted, and there are some guiding principles that are common in all crime initiatives, we adhere to the principles that Law enforcement is the duty of The Royal Bahamas Police Force, and law enforcement organizations, who have been professionally trained to function as Law enforcement officers.
We firmly believe that the State legislates and it is the duty of every citizen to obey the laws of The Commonwealth of the Bahamas. It is therefore, with this belief that we of the Kingdom Government Movement will and must look to all stake holders for shared responsibility to effectively create a safe environment for the citizenry and all those who visit here.
We are of the express view then therefore, that the Kingdom Government Movement has a major role to play in the protection of it’s citizenry, by enacting laws that are measured by the seriousness of the crimes committed by unlawful persons.
The KGM will not and cannot interfere with the law enforcement organizations in the execution and administration of their duties for which they have been professionally trained.
So far the approach to combating crime in The Bahamas has been combative instead of preventative. All our police forces have been militarized, triggering an arms race between law enforcement and criminals. This has yielded little success.
We would suggest a more comprehensive approach with societal re-engineering. The military or combative approach should be available occasionally, but the full weight of law enforcement, will descend on those who chose to continue in a life of criminality, but the mainstay must be education and an adequate social safety net. Criteria-based public assistance.
No successful democracy in the developed world has been able to exist without such a system. We could spend tens of millions in law enforcement and health cost, etc., or spend millions in education, poverty eradication and inclusion. Look at the empirical data globally and locally. Every mouth must be fed or the streets will run red.
For about the past 15 years The Bahamas has been in the top ten of the most murderous countries. We have enacted and implemented more draconian laws, such as no search warrant sting operations for search and gun possession law. But crime has increased. One can argue they have helped to increase crime instead of hindering it. This assertion will be both from a mathematical correlation and a sociological negative pressure matrix.
This social pressure has caused criminals to adapt and become more brutal, and law enforcement doing likewise in the creation of the gang infiltration units and many other covert operations.
Results are what count; successive governments have helped to ferment criminal enterprises in The Bahamas. It’s time to act intelligently and not with brute force and ignorance, which studies have suggested contributes to creating more criminals.
The State of the Art Technology
Today the role of technology is quickly expanding in the field of criminal justice. To drive the research on the law enforcement technology of the future, a clear understanding of the current needs is essential.
Where is there a lack of technical solutions?
Where has technology failed to take into account the specialized needs of law enforcement?
Are current solutions effective in a law enforcement setting?
The development of effective technology for law enforcement stems from an understanding of the answers to these questions and more. Understanding the effects of technological change is a critical issue in contemporary policing.
In recent decades, there have been many important developments with respect to information technologies (IT), analytic systems, video surveillance systems, license plate readers, DNA testing, and other technologies that have far reaching implications for policing. Technology acquisition and deployment decisions are high-priority topics for police, as law enforcement agencies at all levels of government spend vast sums on technology in the hopes of improving their efficiency and effectiveness. It is not clear whether these changes have made police more effective.
Evaluation research on police technology has been geared to focus more on operation and outputs—for example, whether a technology works and makes a process faster—than on its effectiveness in reducing crime or improving service to citizens. The evidence that is available on technology and police performance suggests that technology’s impacts may be limited or offset by many factors, ranging from technical problems to officer resistance.
Developing a better understanding of technology’s impacts and how they can be optimized is thus an important challenge for police agencies, particularly those hoping to leverage new technologies as a force multiplier to offset budget and staffing limits.The notable exception concerns the “technology” of police interventions and strategies; as discussed below under the “Doctrine” domain, there are a number of interventions and practices that have been evaluated to be effective in improving a policing metric under experimental conditions. In addition to the functions of added technologies and their intended uses, technology may also have an impact on workflow and the completion time of specific tasks, saving time with implementation. Police departments that obtained IT . . . also implemented other organizational changes, becoming larger and more specialized and employing a more highly skilled workforce. This evidence is consistent with the possibility that IT is only one component of a larger system of reorganization that is required in order to improve the productivity of policing. To provide a framework for organizing technology and highlighting where the need for innovation may exist.The goal of this framework is to highlight the existing need for new innovation and to drive development in the direction that fits the needs of law enforcement. As with any comparable endeavor, it is difficult to capture all of the possibilities that exist within the law enforcement environment; the current framework instead provides a starting point for discussion and serves as the impetus for the development of technologies in areas where current solutions are lacking or inadequate.
NEW FIREARMS LAWS- A MATTER OF NATIONAL SECURITY
However, KGM believes that any person in possession of a firearm is considered to be armed and a danger to society, therefore, the KGM will enact stricter laws beginning with the possession of unlicensed firearms.
The KGM will and must enact the “ 7-10 -20” Life Law
First and foremost, there is no BAIL under any circumstances for a person in possession of an unlicensed firearm, regardless of time incarcerated while awaiting trial. There is absolutely “NO BAIL”
“ 7-10-20-Life” law will be applicable in the Bahamas. This is a law that requires courts to impose a minimum sentence of 7 to 10 years, 20 years, or 25 years to life for certain felony convictions involving the use or attempted use of a firearm or destructive device. If the firearm is an assault weapon or machine gun, they must impose a sentence of 15 years, 20 years, or 25 years to life. The penalty is in addition and consecutive to the sentence for the underlying felony conviction.
Courts must impose the mandatory minimum sentences in convictions for committing or attempting to commit any of the following felonies, regardless of whether the use of the weapon was an element of the crime:
2. sexual battery;
6. aggravated assault;
7. aggravated battery;
10. aircraft piracy;
11. aggravated child abuse;
12. aggravated abuse of an elderly person or disabled adult;
13. unlawful throwing, placing, or discharging of a destructive device or bomb;
15. home invasion robbery;
16. aggravated stalking;
17. drug trafficking and capital importation of cocaine and other illegal drugs; and
18. possession of firearm by a felon.
Under the “ 7-10-20-life” law, courts must impose a:
1. 7-10-year prison sentence on anyone convicted of committing or attempting to commit any of the above felonies (with certain exceptions), while armed with a firearm or destructive device;
2. 20-year prison term if the accused fired the firearm; or assaulted a person with a fire arm.
3. 25-year to life term if the accused discharged the firearm and seriously hurt someone.
Courts must impose the minimum sentence regardless of any mitigating circumstance. There is “NO BAIL” No part of the sentence may be suspended, deferred, or withheld, and defendants are not eligible for any discretionary early release, other than pardon or clemency, or conditional medical release, before serving the minimum sentence.
In addition any foreigner caught on land, sea, or air in Bahamian territory with a cache of ammunition or unlicensed firearms, will serve life in prison. We in The KGM view this as a clear and present danger to the Commonwealth of the Bahamas and the intent is to destabilize our country and by extension a conspiracy to commit murder.
The KGM proposes to build a new facility on an island to be approved by the Bahamian people. Sections of the current facility will be demolished. There will be a separation of hardened criminals from minor offenders.
Minor financial offences for lack of payments due to lack of resources or employment, will result in community service, that will provide revenue and compensation to the victims.
The failure of mass-incarceration
The flailing western policy of mass-incarceration coupled with long sentences has for two decades been proved quite a failed strategy for the war on crime over the long run. At the same time it also helped to achieve the highest incarceration rate in the world throughout the 1990s and now 2000s.
Recently tons of reports are revealing that even traditionally tough-on-crime republican states and their senators are turning their backs on this policy because of the unbearable cost on the public finances. So much money – quite a few billions per year and per state – that could go instead to infrastructures, education, healthcare and so on.
“Black crime” and poverty
However the whole problem here remains that of discrimination. Logically if an overwhelming majority of the poor in the Bahamas are black and poverty causes crime… then a lot of the criminals are black. Obviously, it’s the same in any country (the criminals also being the poor, that is).
And the association with an ethnic group is all the worse when the word “criminal” implies a moral value (“he’s a bad person”) while it should in fact be more of a social issue. In the end the mass-incarceration strategy has largely targeted the black population of the Bahamas inner city and that in itself is a huge issue. It creates a peculiar sense of segregation by the system and a social bias against an entire ethnic group. What’s even worse is that the habit of long-term prison sentences has completely wiped out any chance of ever getting a job again for most of these people. So what do you do when you can’t get a job at all, hum?
Unemployment… leads to poverty and crime, here again. And the vicious cycle gets more vicious, sending older generations back to jail for another 20 years. And you know what? Over the long run it costs less to offer them an education for 10 years than to keep them in jail for life. The math is in fact quite simple.
Tough on crime = more crime
A recent book by Todd Clear (Imprisoning Communities, Oxford University Press 2007) offers new evidence that over the years the tough-on-crime stance has actually contributed to fuel crime and second offenses. So in the long run the effect of imprisonment on crime is not that great. After all, what do you expect people to learn in prison? It’s certainly not by stuffing them into overcrowded cell blocks that criminals will learn about social values or the virtues of universal love.
So, why does Todd Clear accuse mass-incarceration of being “criminogenic”? Simply because its bias destroys entire communities and makes jail become a normal, inevitable step in people’s lives. Young blacks witness their fathers, brothers and uncles inevitably spend years in jail and think it’s just the way life is for them.
On top of that, when you lock parents up for years (including for minor offenses), it deprives their children of basic life education. Eventually they miss on any form of education whatsoever as they tend to drop out of school quite early on. If no parent is around, who’s going tell them to go to class every morning?
Rebuilding communities and confidence in institutions
At this point unemployment is already widespread, except this time poverty and crime are marked by violence because these kids lack sense of the most basic social norms and behaviors. One solution for Clear is to rebuild communities with community policing strategies so that justice works with the people rather than against them, and thus hoping that confidence in the system can gradually be brought back in.
Breaking the cycle of poverty and crime
Unemployment and education
Public policies that aim to restructure the labor market in order to tackle structural unemployment have a clear-cut (positive) effect on income levels and economic growth. Decreasing unemployment remains central to breaking the cycle of poverty and crime and restoring some social harmony.
Other strategies such as education in prison, or even college-in-prison providing with real diplomas, have been extremely efficient at helping integrate ex-convicts in society and reducing recidivism. The biggest barrier to this type of initiative remains the dilemma of offering free education to criminals while many law-abiding citizens have a hard time paying for one. At least, providing education – or treatment for drug addicts – proves insanely cheaper than pure and simple long-term incarceration.
Housing for all
Other policies should focus on low-income housing as an opportunity to raise households’ income and sense of social fairness. That is as long as the government doesn’t create entire ghettos out of such social housing in a bid to separate the poor from the rest of the population. Maintaining quality social services and a well-functioning social ladder is key to building a just society in which every citizen if offered a chance to develop his own potential.
Building an efficient welfare system
Finally, higher levels of welfare assistance are strongly associated with crime reduction. Now that may seem controversial to some, but… it’s not. Simply put, countries that integrate social welfare in their “war on poverty” and claim that it’s been useless disregard the fact that the war was never properly fought. Consequence, the results are biased and policies highly inefficient because of lack of monitoring and improvement of the different strategies experimented. A failure doesn’t always mean the idea was bad, but sometimes that you should just better the system step-by-step. That’s how we, humans, learn.
Fighting poverty should be more a long term social justice plan, but welfare assistance has been disproportionately lower in the Bahamas than in other Western countries where welfare works much better. In many cases, poorly designed welfare policies has done damage to the very idea of welfare and led many countries to abandon welfare strategies to reduce poverty and crime. And yet, studies have shown that the connection between welfare and poverty reduction is indisputable in many cases… But it often seems as though no one in our governments likes using all this research.
Given the outright correlation between poverty and crime, any policy serious about tackling crime has to take poverty reduction policies into account.
High poverty, low crime?
However, something radically new is happening right now in the Bahamas. With sky-high poverty levels and 1 in 4 families on food assistance, we’re witnessing a remarkable statistical exception because crime has never been so high.
Many studies tend to show that there are several reasons for this:
- Community policing is working very well and new (smarter) ways of working against crime are very fruitful – as the police seem to have abandoned the era of filling quotas of arrests;
- Communities and gangs seem to have stabilized and found common grounds to live in peace – each in its neighborhood.
While the relationship between poverty and crime holds true in the rest of the world, specialists still have to understand what is going on in the Bahamas. Recent articles are suggesting that as far as gangs are concerned, in most inner cities they have settled in their territories and “fought” for stability in order to increase revenue from their illegal activities. Drugs contributing to less crime? Well, it’s all about business in the end.
Treat violence as a public health concern:
We need to use campaigns and technology to reach every child and family in the Bahamas. We need to develop those tools to make sure that everybody feels important and cared for through parenting interventions, family interventions, wellbeing campaigns, and early childhood education.
During the 90s and now 2000s we have rates of homicide that are going beyond epidemic levels. It will take a really costly but comprehensive program to tie up a lot of elements that are drivers of violence in the country, building local frameworks, gun-free zones and fostering civic culture to reduce violence, which has been the case in the past decade.
Focus on hotspots:
We’ve got scientific evidence that a focus on hotspots and ‘hot people’ can prevent or reduce violence. But we need also accompany this with other measures – urban upgrading, better urban planning situational prevention – especially early childhood intervention.
Look at the whole picture:
While people are aware that there are high levels of lethal violence in the Bahamas, this is often misrepresented by national and international media as a simple cops vs robbers dynamic – a misrepresentation that more often than not criminalizes poverty. Much more work needs to be done on understanding the official and unofficial social, political and economic structures that sustain these high levels
Create well-targeted programs:
If the goal is to reduce homicides, then program selection should be located in hotspot areas and focused on the population group most likely to commit violence crimes, often young males between 10-29 years old. The risk factors for why these young men get involved in criminality also needs to be clearly diagnosed and complemented with a treatment plan that involves the family and community.
Focus on prevention:
Prison populations are overflowing, crime is high and violence is a culture in South Africa. The focus needs to be on preventing the conditions that draw people into violent or criminal behavior. In order to do this we need a systematic, integrated, coordinated approach combining the responsibilities of a wide range of state and non-state participation
Avoid repressive policies:
Many countries have approached the problem of violence from a crime and security angle, focusing their action on law-enforcement only. Unfortunately while justice and police have an important role to play, repression only is counter-productive if not combined with development interventions that look at the drivers of violence, and tackle things like skills and education of youth, socio-economic inequalities, and access to communal services
You have to systematically invest in protective factors. Supporting proactive community associations and schools to activate their involvement has also demonstrated positive results in places such as, promoting links between neighboring communities that adjoin each other is also important.
Don’t forget about male violence:
There are lots of interventions that are focused on women’s rights. These are noble. But the vast majority of killings we have seen in the Bahamas are by men on men. We think this needs to be addressed. The international community focuses a great deal on the impact of violence against women. If you address the male drivers of violence, you reduce the female harm of violence.
But treat male and female violence as the same issue:
Male and female dimensions of violence are connected. We need to look at these issues comprehensively rather than a divide and conquer approach. Research has shown it is not just about single risk factors (i.e. being a male is a risk factor) that determines violence – rather it is the accumulation of risk factors that produce violence.
Focus on gun control:
Where there are no guns, there are no gun deaths. A simple and practical way to start impacting armed violence is to try to stem the flow of illegal guns. We believe in the gun control approach as a first step.
Understand that violence is going virtual:
Cyberspace is a new domain for violence. This ranges from the use of social media to project force (videos showing assassinations, torture, threats), to recruit would-be members of extremist groups (digitally savvy marketing campaigns, online chat sites), for selling product (deep web), and also for more banal but no less important forms of intimidation and coercion (bullying). Violence is going virtual, and we need to get a much better handle on all of this.
Find the balance between repression and prevention:
Local experiences and efforts deal mainly with interpersonal aspects of violence. When illicit or transnational crime starts co-opting state forces, people stop trusting their security forces, governments and start focusing on private and personal security, stop using public spaces. So the idea is not to create a system based entirely on repression or prevention, but to find that balance and incorporate rehabilitation and reintegration policies and funding into security strategies.
We know that a better understanding of the drivers of violence is essential, and that starting interventions early (childhood – possibly even before kids are born at a pre-natal stage) is crucial.
Learn from history:
A lot of human rights violations of massive proportions such as slavery and dictatorship, were never really dealt within a transitional or reconciliation process. At the same time, the security forces are relying on structures that don’t make sense and foster competition and corruption.
Keep in mind the impact of drugs:
The global “war on drugs” is a massive driver of crime, violence and insecurity, not only in the Bahamas but increasingly globally. It is time for all international anti-violence development initiatives to take this on board. It still amazes me how much taboo there is around this issue, especially regarding the cocaine industry.
We need to address economic inequality which I believe is central to reducing crime and violence in the long run. We need universal provision of high quality childcare that is affordable for all, and to narrow the difference between the top-to-bottom earnings and rebuild the link between economic prosperity and wages. Restorative justice is a great tool to achieve reconciliation between criminals and their victims, but challenges including funding for organizations and a lack of properly trained facilitators. This can add a new method of employment.
See violence as a priority:
One thing that we need to do better is to better prepare ourselves, as we call on humanitarian, and development participation from all stake holders to ensure that their interventions reduce violence over the long-term by helping to move key reforms and structural changes forward. One key development would be a measurable and effective target within the hot spot areas to reduce violence. This needs to be a National priority.
Use non-violent language:
In a nation that has never had a long history of violence, we need to teach non-violence and non-violent communication. In this vein working with young men coming out of gangs, teaching non-violent communication, conflict resolution and basic communication skills will be extremely powerful and productive.
Remember the details:
Too often development programs are scattered across a wide geographic area and the indicators for success are based on development outcomes and not reducing violence. For example, a workforce development program to employ young people in a middle-income neighborhood should be quite different from a workforce development program targeted at young men who have been in conflict with the law. The latter will require soft skills, cognitive behavioral therapy and trauma counselling in addition to the job component
We believe that targeted investments in income de-concentration, primary and secondary education, early family support, and the rest can prevent violence but not if conducted in a blanket approach. We need to get smarter about how we allocate aid if we want to really have a meaningful impact on preventing and reducing violence.
Technology is present in every aspect of our lives, and it has become an integral part of our life. The criminal justice is not immune. Dealing with jobs in criminal justice today involves GPS systems, robots, advanced cameras. The high-performance computer systems and Internet technologies are also involved. All these technologies improve surveillance and investigation while making analysis procedures easier.
Today, many police officers have some kind of mobile data terminal in their car. This in-car device serves them to be in touch with a central dispatch office. Mobile data terminal can also display mapping, CAD drawings, and safety information. Some police dispatchers even use the advanced mobile phone technologies. Those involve Computer Aided Dispatch software among others. The custodians and evidence technicians use inventory management software. Those systems help them keep track of the property rooms and other secure areas.
Computer programs have incorporated themselves into almost every facet of law enforcement. They are associated with different jobs, ranging from robotic cameras to DNA testing. The number of electronics and new technologies in criminal justice is rapidly growing. And they all have the same goal – to make the jobs more effective.
But this is a two-edged sword, as the criminals also make use of these technologies. They abuse technology for illicit usage. There are more and more tech-savvy criminals these days. That’s why experts in criminal justice have to keep a step further in this technology combat. Despite all these advanced technologies, It happens that someone is unjustly accused. This is where a defense criminal lawyer comes in. A lawyer has to advocate vigorously when protecting the rights of accused persons.
Let’s take a look at some new technologies that have found use in criminal justice.
Detection & Positioning Systems
There are some unique forms of tech advancements in the field of criminal justice. Those include different positioning and detection systems, such as:
- GIS and GPS systems. These systems have been around for years in the police. The officers use them for different purposes. When identifying a suspect location, getting the most effective routes, and so on. Gone are the days when police officers had to engage in a high-speed, dangerous chase. GPS help them track criminals much easier today. Likewise, GIS systems track police vehicles. That helps departments determine their location at any moment.
- Gunshot detection systems (GDS). The police often install the systems of electronic sensors in high-crime areas. That helps them detect where a gunshot comes from. This way the officers have a better response time.
- Robotic cameras, robots, and drones. The robots can replace the officers in many dangerous situations. Thus, they can check out the hazardous areas, diffuse the bombs, and the like. Apart from terrestrial robots, there are also flying drones. Those devices provide a bird’s eye view, which is beneficial for many crime scenes. They are especially useful in hard-to-reach places.
- Automatic License Plate Recognition systems. Many police cars are equipped with the cameras that can capture license plates with ease. This allows the officers to see at once if a car is stolen or not.
Databases & Information Exchange
The computer database is another important technological tool in the criminal justice. There is a wide range of database systems that deal with profiling and fingerprints. Besides, they can handle DNA testing, hot spot analysis, and crime mapping alike. Thanks to those databases, information exchange between states and counties is much faster. This allows law enforcement experts to better see connections between events and people.
There’s a matching technological advancement for every single type of existing database. For instance, fingerprinting tools are more thriving than ever before. They involve image enhancement software that makes fingerprints crystal clear. Also, there’re various biometric tools that analyze fingerprints with more success. We have also seen diverse portable tools which take fingerprints in the field. Aside from fingerprints, the digital tools and databases are used in many other areas as well.
Digital Video Recording
The cameras that use the latest digital video recording technology are all around us. This technology is very practical and affordable to use. It didn’t bypass law enforcement of course. The videos captured by a digital camera can serve as evidence later. Sometimes, it could be a crucial proof in a complaint investigation or in court.
Such a camera is quite lightweight and doesn’t take a lot of space. This allows the police officers to carry it on their uniform or in their car. The cameras can be connected to systems that enable wireless download. It ensures that the vital evidentiary shots are logged with peace of mind. By the way, this reduces officer downtime a lot.
Rapid ID systems
This technology allows officers to have instant access to driver information. The officer can check this info on any traffic stop. The quick access to driver’s license photos is possible through online databases. It lets officers verify your identification if you don’t have the identification card or driver license with you.
Besides driver’s license photos, these can also serve for obtaining of biometric information. This usually refers to the fingerprints from the subjects. Once obtained, the information can be compared and checked in the criminal database. The matching fingerprints will appear if a subject has some arrests in past history. It allows an officer to identify that person on the spot. Moreover, it’s also possible to get information about outstanding warrants. Unfortunately, this technology is only available in some states for now. But we can expect to see it more often in the hands of law enforcement professionals in the coming years.
Aside from in-car cameras, patrol officers often use in-car computers, too. Those computers help them in performing everyday jobs. Not only that this technology increases efficiency but also reduce paper. Arrest reports need a paper to be typed. Once handwritten, someone should create a traffic citation, which involves an electronic device. The patrol that has a printer inside the car can supply a copy of this document for the offender. Even payroll and time reporting can be handled online today. Besides production, electronics is also used for the transmission of the documents. The officers can forward these reports electronically in some cases. This way, the use of paper is minimized.
Computer Aided Dispatch
Dispatchers use punch card, paper, and pen to keep track of dispatch officers and case numbers. The same goes for log calls for activity and service. Well, this job can be done more sophisticated now, by using dispatch software. GPS devices are already integrated into officers’ computers or cars in many departments. Those units report the officers’ position to the dispatch centers. Thus, dispatchers can determine which patrol is closer to a call. It helps them assist citizens in the shortest possible time. Furthermore, it helps the dispatch centers record radio transmission and phone call.
3D Imaging of Crime Scenes
In recent years, we have seen a new method of dissecting every aspect of a crime scene. This fascinating scanning technology looks like something from science fiction. Those devices take a 3-dimensional scan of a whole crime scene, switching a lot of sketches and photos. This way, a crime scene can be shown to detail.
And the list of technology devices in criminal justice goes on. There are also body-worn cameras, through-the-wall radars, predictive analytics software, and so on. While some are not completely tested yet, other devices are pretty controversial.
Law enforcement agencies across the world are recognizing the value of those tools. More and more departments use the new technologies for everyday activities. Yet, many still have to learn how to use software and computers more effectively. That will set them up for success in their future careers.
NEW SYSTEMS TO BE INTRODUCED
Facial Recognition Technology Will Be Used to Fight the New Way against Crime and Terrorism: Examining of Facial Recognition Surveillance Systems.
Facial recognition is part of a larger category of technologies called biometrics that uses biological information, such as iris scans and handprints, to confirm identity.2 The use of facial recognition software in conjunction with public video surveillance (“facial recognition surveillance”) is quickly emerging as a means of tracking down criminals and other wanted individuals.
While facial recognition systems have proven successful in many different applications, the way that KGM will use this technology can be used on streets and in other major public areas to identify criminals at large. The facial images recorded by the cameras are compared to photographs in three separate databases, which include individuals who are wanted felons, sexual predators, and missing children.41 The database will consists of a few thousand photographs which come from existing local law enforcement files, but KGM plan to expand the database to include 30,000 photographs. A law enforcement officer, operating this system at THE beehive, disguised computer center, is responsible for selecting the faces in the crowd that will be turned into face prints and then compared to the photographs in the databases. As the cameras actively monitor several areas, the officer can manipulate a particular camera’s focus by using a computerized joystick mechanism. After the officer has used the joystick to zoom in on a particular face in the crowd, the software determines if there is an 80 percent or higher probability that a match has been made between the targeted face and a face in the database. If such a match has been made, an alarm sounds prompting the officer to do a visual comparison of the face scanned with the photograph in the database. If the officer’s personal scan verifies an accurate match, she now has reasonable suspicion that this person is a wanted criminal or missing child. This allows her to radio officers on the street and have them conduct a temporary stop.
There is a demand for effective practices and technologies to improve practitioners’ knowledge of technologies and how to use them.
Effectively educating practitioners about new process and technology developments is necessary for almost all efforts to field innovations to succeed, so this theme helps satisfy a universal necessary condition for success. Further, almost all of the Tier 1 needs included elements related to informing and educating practitioners. At the core of needs under this theme was a call for an information repository. This, ideally, would be a single source (or at least a pointer or search service) for capturing and sharing law enforcement information. The repository would provide results on processes and technologies, reviews of systems and products, case studies on agencies’ experiences with new systems (including costs), model policies and procedures, and data on funding resources. Also under this theme were needs calling for “research on publicity and training”—calls to improve how scientific results, technologies, and funding information are disseminated to law enforcement, and how law enforcement is trained and educated.
There is a call for effective practices and technologies to improve police-community relations.
According to situations being driven largely by the social and political tensions raised in recent years, in the wake of officer-involved shootings and civic unrest Under this theme, the system needs to focus on improving how agencies inform the public; conducting research and evaluation on policing strategies that are community-centric; improving encounters with the public, including research and training development on de-escalation and procedural justice; and creating tools and databases to collect and act on community feedback, with the caveat that agencies must genuinely act on the feedback they receive. A lack of adequate mental health, crisis, and social services resources for both the community and law Enforcement Police-community relations Knowledge of effective practices and technologies Information sharing and use Personal equipment Dispatch operations Incident response Unmanned aerial vehicles
There is a need to improve the sharing and use of information.
How to get crime analysis capabilities to all law enforcement agencies, including those with limited resources. The problem of officers being overloaded with information and called for assisting developers in identifying which pieces of information are most needed and when to support operations. Other needs to facilitate information sharing and use include supporting federated searching across government and commercial systems, developing model interoperability language for record management system (RMS) requests for proposals, and disseminating core cases that show the operational value of certain types of information sharing.
There is a need to improve forensics capabilities.
Most needs here concerned remediating forensics backlogs and the lack of resources driving them. These included studying backlog impacts and shared-service models for forensics.
There is a need to improve a range of personal equipment and practices for using them.
Tier 1 needs here included calls for best practices for selecting personal gear, determining when to turn body-worn cameras on and off, video management, and assessing body armor advances. There is a need to develop policies and core use cases for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs).
There is a need to improve dispatch center operations.
Tier 1 needs include calls to assess costs and benefits of consolidating dispatch operations, as well as improve the question trees used by 911 call operators. There is a need to improve defenses against active shooters. The first Tier 1 need here called for improving processes for handling weapon-related suspicious activity reports.
There is a need to identify requirements for technologies to improve officers’ physical and mental health.
Prioritized research and development for health purposes highly, but developed few specific needs. It may be worthwhile to have an expert panel focused on physical and mental health innovations for law enforcement. A roadmap describing potential ways ahead to address the highest-priority needs emerging. We have placed the needs and corresponding options for innovation in the same order as the themes above: practitioners’ knowledge of effective practices and technologies, police-community relations, information sharing and use, forensics, and others. Law enforcement today is facing a number of challenges, including problems maintaining high levels of public trust and confidence, a rise in homicides and other violent crime that includes a spike in attacks on officers, continued budget and resourcing pressures, and shortages of officers. Technology and research, combined with effective means of disseminating the results, provides an important pathway to help address these challenges. It is the hope that the needs discussed will help prioritize research, development, and dissemination efforts in ways that will provide the greatest value to our law enforcement practitioners.
The full names and descriptions of the five central categories are as follows: 1.
Information and Communications, including IT systems, communication devices and techniques, information-sharing systems, information analysis systems and tools, and various categories related to collecting and analyzing evidence and information. Surveillance equipment and forensics of all types are included in this domain under the “Information Collection” category. 2. Doctrine, Tactics, Management, and Behavioral Knowledge Development and Training, which covers the business side of law enforcement and the administrative and staff development needs of running a successful department. Related categories within this main topic include various methods of training at all levels. 3. Facility Operations and Population Services, which includes all aspects of maintaining the buildings and structures, as well as the related security. This topic also includes management of infrastructure and logistics, and the services provided to citizens in their association with these facilities. 4. Vehicles, which includes ground, air, and water vehicles and any associated modifications or attachments. 5. Person-Worn Equipment and Weapons/Force, which covers all technologies related to uniforms and clothing, including armor, eyewear, and respiratory protection; the tools that officers wear and the belts that carry them; and both lethal and nonlethal.
1. Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning
Artificial intelligence (AI) is rooted in computer systems performing tasks that normally require human intelligence, such as visual perception, speech recognition and decision making. Machine learning is a subset of AI in which systems learn when exposed to new data rather than being programmed to perform a specific function. AI technologies have been at work in financial services for some time and are rapidly evolving the customer experience and the back office.
One aspect of machine learning involves identifying patterns of behavior from large data sources. This is vital for the detection and prevention of financial crime. Through the continuous monitoring of comprehensive data, customer behavior patterns can be identified to establish when a particular behavior is out of the ordinary. Machine learning can take behavioral analysis to the individual consumer level, improving detection and reducing false-positive rates, while facilitating regulatory compliance.
Data analysis from machine learning can be used by financial institutions to detect potential fraud and money laundering in real time and more accurately. Real instances of financial crime can then be investigated immediately, while customers who are carrying out legitimate transactions can do so without disruption.
Biometrics – the measurement and analysis of unique physical or behavioral characteristics, especially as a means of verifying personal identity – is both old and new. Using fingerprint ID to solve crimes has been around since the late 1800s. In the past few years however, advancements of biometrics have skyrocketed, with some capabilities such as unlocking smartphones and tablets with a fingerprint or via facial recognition becoming more commonplace.
Some applications of the technology in financial services include biometric ID used by mobile banking applications, credit card “selfie” facial recognition and palm vein authentication. The use of biometrics for authentication is an unobtrusive way to enhance security. By presenting information unique to an individual in a quick, consistent and accurate way, a genuine customer can be identified before the financial transaction gets underway. Biometric authentication relies on a mathematical representation of physical attributes that would be very challenging to re-create to gain unauthorized access.
As biometrics becomes more commonplace in mainstream banking, it presents an opportunity for multi-layered fraud mitigation approaches. We could see mobile device facial recognition policies for high-value wire transfers, or combinations of biometrics, such as requiring both a voice print and facial recognition when making transactions. Biometrics could even replace passwords; iPhone X with Face ID has done just that.
4. Predictive Analytics
Predictive analytics turns data into valuable, actionable information used to determine the probable outcome of an event or the likelihood of a situation occurring. While predictive analytics is in use today, it is also evolving. Predictive models must be trained on new fraud and money laundering techniques if they are to provide financial institutions with the ability to rapidly respond to new attacks.
A hybrid analytics model often analyses particular customer and transaction information from the financial institution against broader data sets. While data on its own can be useful, by reviewing this against other sources across the industry, the actionable information from that data becomes richer and patterns can be identified. These patterns can then be used to predict, detect and prevent fraudulent behavior.
In addition, hybrid analytics models are purpose-built to let the business experts within risk departments influence the model. Future applications could create super-hybrid models in which individual financial institutions could link to country-level or global-level information in a secure cloud environment. Hybrid analytics could also be combined with machine learning and other advanced technologies to provide even more accurate financial crime detection and prevention.
5. Application Programming Interface (API)
APIs have been used by IT teams for years to connect applications for the purpose of sharing data and functionality. APIs make integration faster, less costly and easier.
Financial institutions can leverage APIs to drive risk-based financial crime strategies that allow for nimble reactions to crime scenarios. The ability to pull in particular customer and third-party data enables financial organizations to snap in – and snap out – solutions for different business needs to balance financial crime mitigation, client experience and operational costs.
Souped-up smartphones will allow officers to respond faster and more effectively to incidents, as well as call up key information on a case. Robots on patrol can aid in the detection of suspicious activities, and handheld scanners will make it easier to take real-time 3D scans of crime scenes to help investigators.
The police smartphone will allow officers to receive real-time information on the ground 24/7.
With the police smartphone, they will be able to perform the functions of calling, messaging and incident report filing all on one platform. The phones will also let officers access information on standard operating procedures on the go, en route to an incident and even while they are off duty.
Some apps will allow them to quickly map out points of interest – like locations of closed-circuit television (CCTV) cameras – and identify uniforms of suspects. This will aid investigations.
In the future, officers will be able to pull up information about a suspect’s criminal record. Should the device be lost, there are security measures to remotely delete information on it.
THE INTRODUCTION OF THE BAHAMAS BORDER PATROL
The BAHAMAS borders is a vast area covered by water. The Border Patrol will utilize a variety of equipment and methods, such as electronic sensors placed at strategic locations along the border, to detect people or vehicles entering the country illegally. Video monitors and night vision scopes will also be used to detect illegal entries. Agents will patrol the border in vehicles, boats, aircraft, and afoot. In some areas, the Border Patrol will employ, all-terrain motorcycles, bicycles, and sea land crafts. Air surveillance capabilities will be provided by unmanned aerial vehicles.
The primary activity of a Border Patrol Agent is “Line Watch”. Line Watch involves the detection, prevention, and apprehension of terrorists, illegal aliens and smugglers of aliens at or near the land border by maintaining surveillance from a covert position; following up on leads; responding to electronic sensor, television systems and aircraft sightings; and interpreting and following tracks, marks, and other physical evidence. Major activities include traffic check, traffic observation, city patrol, transportation check, administrative, intelligence, and anti-smuggling activities.
Traffic checks will be conducted on major highways leading away from the border to detect and apprehend illegal aliens attempting to travel further into the interior of our cities after evading detection at the border, and to detect illegal narcotics.
Transportation checks and inspections of interior-bound conveyances, which include buses, commercial aircraft, passenger and freight carriers, private yachts, commercial and marine craft.
Marine Patrols will be conducted along the coastal waterways of the Bahamas, primarily along the Atlantic coast.